The Geiger-Mueller (GM) detector is a common portable instrument option for a general study of laboratory radioactive materials. GM detectors are capable of detecting alpha, beta and gamma radiation. Radiation detection is achieved through the use of a variety of instruments. The most common type of radiation detector is a Geiger-Mueller (GM) tube, also called a Geiger counter.
Geiger counters use the natural ionization process to detect and measure radiation levels. As the name implies, the topographic meter is a portable radiation detector, which typically measures the amount of radiation present and provides this information on a numerical display in units of counts per minute, counts per second, or microroentgen (µR) or microrem (µrem) per hour. A Geiger counter, also known as a Geiger-Muller tube, is an inexpensive and useful instrument used to quickly detect and measure radiation. An RIID is a radiation detector with the ability to analyze the energy spectrum of radiation, in order to identify the specific radioactive material (radionuclide) that emits the radiation.
Between 1925 and 1928, Geiger and his doctoral student Walter Muller improved the sensitivity of the counter to detect all types of ionizing radiation. A particular meter, known as a teletector, is specifically designed to detect gamma and x-ray radiation.