The Geiger-Mueller (GM) detector is a common portable instrument option for a general study of laboratory radioactive materials. GM detectors are capable of detecting alpha, beta and gamma radiation. Radiation detection is achieved through the use of a variety of instruments. The most common type of radiation detector is a Geiger-Mueller (GM) tube, also called a Geiger counter.
End-window Geiger counters are still used as a general-purpose portable radioactive contamination measurement and detection instrument, due to their relatively low cost, robustness and relatively high detection efficiency; particularly with high-energy β particles. An RIID is a radiation detector with the ability to analyze the energy spectrum of radiation, in order to identify the specific radioactive material (radionuclide) that emits the radiation. The second major type of detectors used in radiation detection instruments are scintillation detectors. There are also hybrid instruments that have a separate probe for particle detection and a gamma detection tube inside the electronic module.
It detects ionizing radiation, such as alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays, using the ionization effect produced in a Geiger-Müller tube, which gives the instrument its name. Geiger counters are widely used to detect gamma radiation and x-rays collectively known as photons, using the windowless tube. When talking about radiation detection instruments, there are three types of detectors that are most often used, depending on the specific needs of the device. A particular meter, known as a teletector, is specifically designed to detect gamma and x-ray radiation.
A Geiger counter (also known as a Geiger-Müller counter) is an electronic instrument used to detect and measure ionizing radiation. As the name implies, the topographic meter is a portable radiation detector, which typically measures the amount of radiation present and provides this information on a numerical display in units of counts per minute, counts per second, or microroentgen (µR) or microrem (µrem) per hour. The article on the Geiger-Müller tube contains a more detailed description of the techniques used to detect photon radiation.