The most common type of radiation detector is a Geiger-Mueller (GM) tube, also known as a Geiger counter. This device was named after Hans Geiger, a German scientist who worked on radiation detection in the early 20th century. His graduate PhD student, Walter Mueller, perfected the gas-sealed detector in the late 1920s and received credit for his work when he gave the Geiger-Mueller tube its name. A Geiger counter is an electronic instrument used to detect and measure ionizing radiation.
It is widely used in applications such as radiation dosimetry, radiation protection, experimental physics, and the nuclear industry. The Geiger counter is capable of detecting alpha, beta, and gamma radiation, although it cannot distinguish between them. A central cable between a high-voltage gas-filled tube is used to collect ionization caused by incident radiation. This type of detector is also used to detect light from events such as nuclear decay, cosmic radiation, or reactions in a particle accelerator.
For example, if RADnet detected a significant increase in radiation above baseline, EPA would immediately investigate. Film detectors are good at determining radiation levels and are commonly used for radiation safety. These ubiquitous sources of radiation are called background radiation, and all radiation detectors have to deal with it, which they often do by shielding them. Photomultiplier tubes are used to detect Cerenkov radiation which can be observed in scintillation detectors.
Particle detectors are instruments designed for the detection and measurement of subatomic particles, such as those emitted by radioactive materials, produced by particle accelerators, or observed in cosmic rays. However, there are limitations in measuring high rates of radiation and the energy of incident radiation. More energetic radiation ionizes more of the gas than less energetic radiation; the proportional detector can detect this.A radiation detector is an instrument used to detect high-energy particles, such as those produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation, or reactions in a particle accelerator. It detects ionizing radiation using the ionization effect produced in a Geiger-Müller tube.
The article on the Geiger-Mueller tube contains a more detailed description of the techniques used to detect photon radiation.In conclusion, a Geiger-Mueller (GM) tube or Geiger counter is an electronic instrument used to detect and measure ionizing radiation. It is widely used in applications such as radiation dosimetry, radiation protection, experimental physics, and the nuclear industry.