Geiger Mueller (GM) detectors with pancake type probes. Another common early detector was the electroscope. They used a pair of gold leaves that would be charged by ionization caused by radiation and would repel each other. This provided a means to measure radiation with a better level of sensitivity than was reliably possible using photographic plates.
Depending on the arrangement of the device, they could be configured to measure alpha or beta particles, and were a valuable tool for early experiments involving radioactivity. When talking about radiation detection instruments, there are three types of detectors that are most often used, depending on the specific needs of the device. Examples of active radiation detectors include Geiger-Müller counters and other topographic meters often used in health physics and radiation protection, scintillation-based detectors such as sodium iodide and semiconductor-based detectors such as high-purity germanium, both used in gamma-ray spectroscopy. An RIID is a radiation detector with the ability to analyze the energy spectrum of radiation, in order to identify the specific radioactive material (radionuclide) that emits the radiation.
As the name implies, the topographic meter is a portable radiation detector, which typically measures the amount of radiation present and provides this information on a numerical display in units of counts per minute, counts per second, or microroentgen (µR) or microrem (µrem) per hour. The second major type of detectors used in radiation detection instruments are scintillation detectors. Since the early days of radiation testing conducted by Roentgen and Becquerel, scientists have been looking for ways to measure and observe the radiation emitted by the materials they worked with. Radiation dosimeters are a subset of radiation detectors and are designed to measure the absorbed dose, i.
A particular meter, known as a teletector, is specifically designed to detect gamma and x-ray radiation.