The most common type of radiation detector is a Geiger-Mueller (GM) tube, also called a Geiger counter. Dosimeters can measure alpha, beta, gamma, or x-ray radiation levels. The first type of radiation detector, gas-filled detectors, are among the most commonly used. There are several types of gas-filled detectors, and while they have several differences in the way they work, they are all based on similar principles.
When the gas in the detector contacts the radiation, it reacts, the gas ionizes and the resulting electronic charge is measured with a meter. A particular meter, known as a teletector, is specifically designed to detect gamma and x-ray radiation. When talking about radiation detection instruments, there are three types of detectors that are most commonly used, depending on the specific needs of the device. The second major type of detectors used in radiation detection instruments are scintillation detectors.
Since it is not possible for a single detector to measure all types of radiation efficiently, several types of detectors made of different materials are used in the detection of specific types of radiation. Despite the variety of sensor devices, the demand for new materials that can detect ionizing radiation efficiently and at the lowest possible cost is essential for the development of this area. Since ionizing radiation is not easily detected and it also has a high ionizing power and penetrating force, it constitutes a risk to human health when it is outside its acceptable limits. Inorganic scintillators generally respond more slowly than organic scintillators, but are more efficient than organic materials at detecting ionizing radiation due to their higher density and higher average atomic number.
When high-energy radiation passes through a medium, it ionizes and releases charges that depend on the energy of the excitation radiation. In summary, a radiation detector is a device used to track, detect, or identify high-energy particles or radiation from natural or artificial sources, such as cosmic radiation, nuclear decay, particle accelerators, and x-rays. For a semiconductor to act as a radiation detector, the area active to radiation must be free from excessive electrical loads (exhausted). As the name implies, the topographic meter is a portable radiation detector, which typically measures the amount of radiation present and provides this information on a numerical display in units of counts per minute, counts per second, or microroentgen (µR) or microrem (µrem) per hour.
Another detection possibility is to acquire the incident radiation signal through pulses (pulse counting mode). In the event of an emergency, ECOTEST TM search devices will quickly detect and locate a radiation threat. However, germanium is used more than silicon for radiation detection because the average energy needed to create an electron-hole pair is 3.6eV for silicon and 2.6eV for germanium, which provides the latter with better energy resolution. Timber plants and timber companies use ECOTEST TM products in their work to determine the radiological safety of wood and look for sources of ionizing radiation.